Geophysical Mapping: Method Findings
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Search Again         Applicable Techniques
 Methodtype  Method  Assigner  Problem  Problemtype
  Borehole Methods   Acoustic logging +   Depth of Overburden-bedrock interface   Civil Engineering
    +   Fractures   Groundwater
    +   Gravel, clay, limestone, salt exploration   Natural Resources
    +   Porosity / Permeability   Groundwater
    +   Quality / Thickness of aquifer/aquitard   Groundwater
    +   Quality and thickness (Natural resources)   Natural Resources
    +   Soil / rock quality   Civil Engineering
    +   Young's / shear modulus, Poisson's ratio   Civil Engineering
    0   Building stability   Buildings and Structures
    0   Characteristics of hazardous waste   Hazardous Waste
    0   Groundwater table   Groundwater
    0   Heat mining   Natural Resources
    0   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    0   Ice thickness   Natural Hazards
    0   Landslides   Natural Hazards
    0   Permafrost and ice detection   Natural Hazards
    0   Quality / Thickness of concrete   Buildings and Structures
    Borehole imaging, Structure logging +   Building stability   Buildings and Structures
    +   Cavity detection   Civil Engineering
    +   Depth of Overburden-bedrock interface   Civil Engineering
    +   Fractures   Groundwater
    +   Ice thickness   Natural Hazards
    +   Permafrost and ice detection   Natural Hazards
    +   Quality / Thickness of concrete   Buildings and Structures
    +   Quality and thickness (Natural resources)   Natural Resources
    +   Soil / rock quality   Civil Engineering
    0   Characteristics of hazardous waste   Hazardous Waste
    0   Contaminant plumes   Hazardous Waste
    0   Earthquakes / paleoseismology   Natural Hazards
    0   Foundations of ancient structures   Buildings and Structures
    0   Groundwater table   Groundwater
    0   Heat mining   Natural Resources
    0   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    0   Landslides   Natural Hazards
    0   Porosity / Permeability   Groundwater
    0   Quality / Thickness of aquifer/aquitard   Groundwater
    Electrical and induction logging +   Aquifer pollution   Groundwater
    +   Contaminant plumes   Hazardous Waste
    +   Fractures   Groundwater
    +   Gravel, clay, limestone, salt exploration   Natural Resources
    +   Groundwater table   Groundwater
    +   Ice thickness   Natural Hazards
    +   Permafrost and ice detection   Natural Hazards
    +   Quality / Thickness of aquifer/aquitard   Groundwater
    +   Quality and thickness (Natural resources)   Natural Resources
    +   Soil / rock quality   Civil Engineering
    0   Characteristics of hazardous waste   Hazardous Waste
    0   Depth of Overburden-bedrock interface   Civil Engineering
    0   Heat mining   Natural Resources
    0   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    0   Landslides   Natural Hazards
    0   Porosity / Permeability   Groundwater
    0   Temporal variations   Groundwater
    Fluid logging, Flow meter +   Aquifer pollution   Groundwater
    +   Characteristics of hazardous waste   Hazardous Waste
    +   Contaminant plumes   Hazardous Waste
    +   Fractures   Groundwater
    +   Groundwater table   Groundwater
    +   Heat mining   Natural Resources
    +   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    +   Landslides   Natural Hazards
    +   Porosity / Permeability   Groundwater
    +   Quality / Thickness of aquifer/aquitard   Groundwater
    +   Temperature   Groundwater
    +   Temporal variations   Groundwater
    Nuclear logging +   Density   Civil Engineering
    +   Gravel, clay, limestone, salt exploration   Natural Resources
    +   Ice thickness   Natural Hazards
    +   Landslides   Natural Hazards
    +   Porosity / Permeability   Groundwater
    +   Quality / Thickness of aquifer/aquitard   Groundwater
    +   Quality and thickness (Natural resources)   Natural Resources
    0   Building stability   Buildings and Structures
    0   Depth of Overburden-bedrock interface   Civil Engineering
    0   Groundwater table   Groundwater
    0   Heat mining   Natural Resources
    0   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    0   Permafrost and ice detection   Natural Hazards
    0   Quality / Thickness of concrete   Buildings and Structures
    0   Soil / rock quality   Civil Engineering
    Technical logging +   Permafrost and ice detection   Natural Hazards
    +   Soil / rock quality   Civil Engineering
    0   Fractures   Groundwater
    0   Gravel, clay, limestone, salt exploration   Natural Resources
    0   Landslides   Natural Hazards
  Electrical Methods   BEAM G4 SCAN +   Aquifer pollution   Groundwater
    +   Cavity detection   Civil Engineering
    +   Fault zones   Civil Engineering
    +   Fracture zone   Civil Engineering
    +   Fractures   Groundwater
    0   Location of buried materials   Hazardous Waste
    0   Porosity / Permeability   Groundwater
    0   Quality / Thickness of aquifer/aquitard   Groundwater
    DC geoelectrics - Profiling +   Aquifer pollution   Groundwater
    +   Contaminant plumes   Hazardous Waste
    +   Foundations of ancient structures   Buildings and Structures
    +   Gravel, clay, limestone, salt exploration   Natural Resources
    +   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    +   Location of Ancient Structures   Cultural Heritage
    +   Location of buried materials   Hazardous Waste
    +   Wall Construction   Cultural Heritage
    0   Cavity detection   Civil Engineering
    0   Characteristics of hazardous waste   Hazardous Waste
    0   Depth of Overburden-bedrock interface   Civil Engineering
    0   Fractures   Groundwater
    0   Landslides   Natural Hazards
    0   Monitoring   Hazardous Waste
    0   Permafrost and ice detection   Natural Hazards
    0   Porosity / Permeability   Groundwater
    0   Quality / Thickness of concrete   Buildings and Structures
    0   Quality and thickness (Natural resources)   Natural Resources
    0   Quantity/ Thickness   Hazardous Waste
    0   Soil / rock quality   Civil Engineering
    DC geoelectrics - Sounding +   Depth of Overburden-bedrock interface   Civil Engineering
    +   Gravel, clay, limestone, salt exploration   Natural Resources
    +   Groundwater table   Groundwater
    +   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    +   Ice thickness   Natural Hazards
    +   Landslides   Natural Hazards
    +   Permafrost and ice detection   Natural Hazards
    +   Quality / Thickness of aquifer/aquitard   Groundwater
    +   Quality and thickness (Natural resources)   Natural Resources
    +   Quantity/ Thickness   Hazardous Waste
    0   Aquifer pollution   Groundwater
    0   Location of buried materials   Hazardous Waste
    0   Porosity / Permeability   Groundwater
    0   Soil / rock quality   Civil Engineering
    0   Temporal variations   Groundwater
    Geoelectrics - Crosshole tomography +   Aquifer pollution   Groundwater
    +   Cavity detection   Civil Engineering
    +   Characteristics of hazardous waste   Hazardous Waste
    +   Contaminant plumes   Hazardous Waste
    +   Fractures   Groundwater
    +   Location of buried materials   Hazardous Waste
    +   Monitoring   Hazardous Waste
    +   Quality / Thickness of aquifer/aquitard   Groundwater
    +   Quality and thickness (Natural resources)   Natural Resources
    +   Soil / rock quality   Civil Engineering
    0   Depth of Overburden-bedrock interface   Civil Engineering
    0   Foundations of ancient structures   Buildings and Structures
    0   Gravel, clay, limestone, salt exploration   Natural Resources
    0   Groundwater table   Groundwater
    0   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    0   Permafrost and ice detection   Natural Hazards
    0   Porosity / Permeability   Groundwater
    0   Quantity/ Thickness   Hazardous Waste
    0   Temporal variations   Groundwater
    Geoelectrics - Tomography (surface based) +   Aquifer pollution   Groundwater
    +   Cavity detection   Civil Engineering
    +   Contaminant plumes   Hazardous Waste
    +   Depth of Overburden-bedrock interface   Civil Engineering
    +   Foundations of ancient structures   Buildings and Structures
    +   Fractures   Groundwater
    +   Gravel, clay, limestone, salt exploration   Natural Resources
    +   Groundwater table   Groundwater
    +   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    +   Landslides   Natural Hazards
    +   Location of Ancient Structures   Cultural Heritage
    +   Location of buried materials   Hazardous Waste
    +   Monitoring   Hazardous Waste
    +   Permafrost and ice detection   Natural Hazards
    +   Quality / Thickness of aquifer/aquitard   Groundwater
    +   Quality and thickness (Natural resources)   Natural Resources
    +   Quantity/ Thickness   Hazardous Waste
    +   Soil / rock quality   Civil Engineering
    +   Temporal variations   Groundwater
    0   Characteristics of hazardous waste   Hazardous Waste
    0   Ice thickness   Natural Hazards
    0   Porosity / Permeability   Groundwater
    0   Quality / Thickness of concrete   Buildings and Structures
    Induced polarization - Profiling +   Location of Ancient Structures   Cultural Heritage
    +   Location of buried materials   Hazardous Waste
    0   Aquifer pollution   Groundwater
    0   Characteristics of hazardous waste   Hazardous Waste
    0   Contaminant plumes   Hazardous Waste
    0   Gravel, clay, limestone, salt exploration   Natural Resources
    0   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    Induced polarization - Sounding +   Quantity/ Thickness   Hazardous Waste
    0   Aquifer pollution   Groundwater
    0   Contaminant plumes   Hazardous Waste
    0   Gravel, clay, limestone, salt exploration   Natural Resources
    0   Quality / Thickness of aquifer/aquitard   Groundwater
    0   Quality and thickness (Natural resources)   Natural Resources
    Induced polarization - Tomography (surface-based) +   Aquifer pollution   Groundwater
    +   Contaminant plumes   Hazardous Waste
    +   Gravel, clay, limestone, salt exploration   Natural Resources
    0   Characteristics of hazardous waste   Hazardous Waste
    0   Location of Ancient Structures   Cultural Heritage
    0   Quality and thickness (Natural resources)   Natural Resources
    Self potential +   Monitoring   Hazardous Waste
    +   Quality / Thickness of concrete   Buildings and Structures
    0   Aquifer pollution   Groundwater
    0   Cavity detection   Civil Engineering
    0   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    0   Landslides   Natural Hazards
    0   Porosity / Permeability   Groundwater
  Electromagnetic Methods   Airbore electromagnetic methods +   Regional Mapping   Regional Mapping
    0   Foundations of ancient structures   Buildings and Structures
    0   Location of buried materials   Hazardous Waste
    0   UXO detection   Hazardous Waste
    Frequency-domain electromagnetics - Profiling +   Aquifer pollution   Groundwater
    +   Characteristics of hazardous waste   Hazardous Waste
    +   Contaminant plumes   Hazardous Waste
    +   Foundations of ancient structures   Buildings and Structures
    +   Fractures   Groundwater
    +   Gravel, clay, limestone, salt exploration   Natural Resources
    +   Groundwater table   Groundwater
    +   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    +   Location of Ancient Structures   Cultural Heritage
    +   Location of buried materials   Hazardous Waste
    +   Monitoring   Hazardous Waste
    +   Permafrost and ice detection   Natural Hazards
    0   Cavity detection   Civil Engineering
    0   Landslides   Natural Hazards
    0   Porosity / Permeability   Groundwater
    0   Quality / Thickness of aquifer/aquitard   Groundwater
    0   Quality and thickness (Natural resources)   Natural Resources
    0   UXO detection   Hazardous Waste
    0   Weapon   Forsenic Investigations
    Frequency-domain electromagnetics - Sounding +   Aquifer pollution   Groundwater
    +   Contaminant plumes   Hazardous Waste
    +   Foundations of ancient structures   Buildings and Structures
    +   Fractures   Groundwater
    +   Gravel, clay, limestone, salt exploration   Natural Resources
    +   Groundwater table   Groundwater
    +   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    +   Location of buried materials   Hazardous Waste
    +   Monitoring   Hazardous Waste
    +   Permafrost and ice detection   Natural Hazards
    0   Cavity detection   Civil Engineering
    0   Characteristics of hazardous waste   Hazardous Waste
    0   Dead body   Forsenic Investigations
    0   Landslides   Natural Hazards
    0   Porosity / Permeability   Groundwater
    0   Quality / Thickness of aquifer/aquitard   Groundwater
    0   Quality and thickness (Natural resources)   Natural Resources
    0   UXO detection   Hazardous Waste
    0   Weapon   Forsenic Investigations
    Ground penetrating radar (surface-based) +   Aquifer pollution   Groundwater
    +   Building stability   Buildings and Structures
    +   Cavity detection   Civil Engineering
    +   Contaminant plumes   Hazardous Waste
    +   Dead body   Forsenic Investigations
    +   Depth of Overburden-bedrock interface   Civil Engineering
    +   Earthquakes / paleoseismology   Natural Hazards
    +   Foundations of ancient structures   Buildings and Structures
    +   Fractures   Groundwater
    +   Gravel, clay, limestone, salt exploration   Natural Resources
    +   Groundwater table   Groundwater
    +   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    +   Ice thickness   Natural Hazards
    +   Landslides   Natural Hazards
    +   Location of Ancient Structures   Cultural Heritage
    +   Location of buried materials   Hazardous Waste
    +   Monitoring   Hazardous Waste
    +   Permafrost and ice detection   Natural Hazards
    +   Quality / Thickness of aquifer/aquitard   Groundwater
    +   Quality / Thickness of concrete   Buildings and Structures
    +   Quality of roads/ airfields   Buildings and Structures
    +   Soil / rock quality   Civil Engineering
    +   Temporal variations   Groundwater
    +   Wall Construction   Cultural Heritage
    +   Weapon   Forsenic Investigations
    0   Characteristics of hazardous waste   Hazardous Waste
    0   Porosity / Permeability   Groundwater
    0   Quality and thickness (Natural resources)   Natural Resources
    0   Quantity/ Thickness   Hazardous Waste
    0   UXO detection   Hazardous Waste
    Ground penetrating radar - Borehole tomography +   Building stability   Buildings and Structures
    +   Cavity detection   Civil Engineering
    +   Characteristics of hazardous waste   Hazardous Waste
    +   Contaminant plumes   Hazardous Waste
    +   Dead body   Forsenic Investigations
    +   Earthquakes / paleoseismology   Natural Hazards
    +   Foundations of ancient structures   Buildings and Structures
    +   Fractures   Groundwater
    +   Location of buried materials   Hazardous Waste
    +   Monitoring   Hazardous Waste
    +   Permafrost and ice detection   Natural Hazards
    +   Soil / rock quality   Civil Engineering
    +   Temporal variations   Groundwater
    +   Weapon   Forsenic Investigations
    0   Depth of Overburden-bedrock interface   Civil Engineering
    0   Gravel, clay, limestone, salt exploration   Natural Resources
    0   Groundwater table   Groundwater
    0   Quality / Thickness of aquifer/aquitard   Groundwater
    0   Quality and thickness (Natural resources)   Natural Resources
    0   Quantity/ Thickness   Hazardous Waste
    Magnetotellurics, Controlled source audiomagnetotellurics 0   Depth of Overburden-bedrock interface   Civil Engineering
    0   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    Time-domain electromagnetics - Profiling +   Depth of Overburden-bedrock interface   Civil Engineering
    +   Groundwater table   Groundwater
    +   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    +   Location of Ancient Structures   Cultural Heritage
    +   Permafrost and ice detection   Natural Hazards
    +   Quality and thickness (Natural resources)   Natural Resources
    +   UXO detection   Hazardous Waste
    +   Wall Construction   Cultural Heritage
    +   Weapon   Forsenic Investigations
    0   Aquifer pollution   Groundwater
    0   Characteristics of hazardous waste   Hazardous Waste
    0   Contaminant plumes   Hazardous Waste
    0   Dead body   Forsenic Investigations
    0   Fractures   Groundwater
    0   Gravel, clay, limestone, salt exploration   Natural Resources
    0   Ice thickness   Natural Hazards
    0   Landslides   Natural Hazards
    0   Location of buried materials   Hazardous Waste
    0   Porosity / Permeability   Groundwater
    0   Quality / Thickness of aquifer/aquitard   Groundwater
    0   Quantity/ Thickness   Hazardous Waste
    Time-domain electromagnetics - Sounding +   Depth of Overburden-bedrock interface   Civil Engineering
    +   Groundwater table   Groundwater
    +   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    +   Permafrost and ice detection   Natural Hazards
    +   Quality and thickness (Natural resources)   Natural Resources
    +   UXO detection   Hazardous Waste
    +   Weapon   Forsenic Investigations
    0   Aquifer pollution   Groundwater
    0   Characteristics of hazardous waste   Hazardous Waste
    0   Contaminant plumes   Hazardous Waste
    0   Dead body   Forsenic Investigations
    0   Fractures   Groundwater
    0   Gravel, clay, limestone, salt exploration   Natural Resources
    0   Ice thickness   Natural Hazards
    0   Landslides   Natural Hazards
    0   Location of buried materials   Hazardous Waste
    0   Porosity / Permeability   Groundwater
    0   Quality / Thickness of aquifer/aquitard   Groundwater
    0   Quantity/ Thickness   Hazardous Waste
    VLF / VLF-R, Radiomagnetotellurics +   Aquifer pollution   Groundwater
    +   Characteristics of hazardous waste   Hazardous Waste
    +   Contaminant plumes   Hazardous Waste
    +   Fractures   Groundwater
    +   Location of buried materials   Hazardous Waste
    +   Monitoring   Hazardous Waste
    +   Quality / Thickness of aquifer/aquitard   Groundwater
    +   Quality and thickness (Natural resources)   Natural Resources
    +   Soil / rock quality   Civil Engineering
    0   Cavity detection   Civil Engineering
    0   Depth of Overburden-bedrock interface   Civil Engineering
    0   Foundations of ancient structures   Buildings and Structures
    0   Gravel, clay, limestone, salt exploration   Natural Resources
    0   Groundwater table   Groundwater
    0   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    0   Permafrost and ice detection   Natural Hazards
    0   Porosity / Permeability   Groundwater
    0   Quantity/ Thickness   Hazardous Waste
    0   Temporal variations   Groundwater
  Gravity   Aerogravity +   Density   Civil Engineering
    +   Regional Mapping   Regional Mapping
    Land gravity +   Density   Civil Engineering
    +   Regional Mapping   Regional Mapping
    0   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    0   Ice thickness   Natural Hazards
    0   Quality / Thickness of aquifer/aquitard   Groundwater
    Micro gravity +   Cavity detection   Civil Engineering
    +   Density   Civil Engineering
    0   Foundations of ancient structures   Buildings and Structures
    0   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    0   Landslides   Natural Hazards
    0   Location of buried materials   Hazardous Waste
    0   Permafrost and ice detection   Natural Hazards
  Magnetic Methods   Airborne magnetics +   Characteristics of hazardous waste   Hazardous Waste
    +   Foundations of ancient structures   Buildings and Structures
    +   Location of buried materials   Hazardous Waste
    +   Regional Mapping   Regional Mapping
    +   UXO detection   Hazardous Waste
    +   Weapon   Forsenic Investigations
    0   Cavity detection   Civil Engineering
    0   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    Ground magnetics +   Foundations of ancient structures   Buildings and Structures
    +   Location of Ancient Structures   Cultural Heritage
    +   Location of buried materials   Hazardous Waste
    +   Regional Mapping   Regional Mapping
    +   UXO detection   Hazardous Waste
    +   Weapon   Forsenic Investigations
    0   Cavity detection   Civil Engineering
    0   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    US   Characteristics of hazardous waste   Hazardous Waste
  Radioactivity   Airborne spectrometry +   Regional Mapping   Regional Mapping
    Ground spectrometry +   Monitoring   Hazardous Waste
    +   Regional Mapping   Regional Mapping
    0   Fractures   Groundwater
    Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNMR) +   Fractures   Groundwater
    +   Groundwater table   Groundwater
    +   Porosity / Permeability   Groundwater
  Seismic Techniques   Passive seismic monitoring +   Earthquakes / paleoseismology   Natural Hazards
    +   Heat mining   Natural Resources
    +   Landslides   Natural Hazards
    0   Fractures   Groundwater
    Refraction seismic tomography (surface-based) +   Characteristics of hazardous waste   Hazardous Waste
    +   Depth of Overburden-bedrock interface   Civil Engineering
    +   Gravel, clay, limestone, salt exploration   Natural Resources
    +   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    +   Landslides   Natural Hazards
    +   Location of buried materials   Hazardous Waste
    +   Permafrost and ice detection   Natural Hazards
    +   Quality and thickness (Natural resources)   Natural Resources
    +   Quantity/ Thickness   Hazardous Waste
    +   Soil / rock quality   Civil Engineering
    +   Young's / shear modulus, Poisson's ratio   Civil Engineering
    0   Building stability   Buildings and Structures
    0   Cavity detection   Civil Engineering
    0   Earthquakes / paleoseismology   Natural Hazards
    0   Foundations of ancient structures   Buildings and Structures
    0   Fractures   Groundwater
    0   Groundwater table   Groundwater
    0   Ice thickness   Natural Hazards
    0   Monitoring   Hazardous Waste
    0   Quality / Thickness of aquifer/aquitard   Groundwater
    0   Quality / Thickness of concrete   Buildings and Structures
    0   Quality of roads/ airfields   Buildings and Structures
    0   Temporal variations   Groundwater
    Seismic crosshole tomography +   Building stability   Buildings and Structures
    +   Cavity detection   Civil Engineering
    +   Characteristics of hazardous waste   Hazardous Waste
    +   Depth of Overburden-bedrock interface   Civil Engineering
    +   Foundations of ancient structures   Buildings and Structures
    +   Fractures   Groundwater
    +   Heat mining   Natural Resources
    +   Location of buried materials   Hazardous Waste
    +   Permafrost and ice detection   Natural Hazards
    +   Quality / Thickness of concrete   Buildings and Structures
    +   Soil / rock quality   Civil Engineering
    0   Earthquakes / paleoseismology   Natural Hazards
    0   Gravel, clay, limestone, salt exploration   Natural Resources
    0   Groundwater table   Groundwater
    0   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    0   Landslides   Natural Hazards
    0   Monitoring   Hazardous Waste
    0   Porosity / Permeability   Groundwater
    0   Quality / Thickness of aquifer/aquitard   Groundwater
    0   Quality and thickness (Natural resources)   Natural Resources
    0   Quantity/ Thickness   Hazardous Waste
    0   Young's / shear modulus, Poisson's ratio   Civil Engineering
    Seismic noise measurements +   Depth of Overburden-bedrock interface   Civil Engineering
    +   Earthquakes / paleoseismology   Natural Hazards
    Seismic surface waves methods +   Building stability   Buildings and Structures
    +   Dam monitoring   Civil Engineering
    +   Depth of Overburden-bedrock interface   Civil Engineering
    +   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    +   Quantity/ Thickness   Hazardous Waste
    +   Soil / rock quality   Civil Engineering
    +   Young's / shear modulus, Poisson's ratio   Civil Engineering
    0   Cavity detection   Civil Engineering
    0   Characteristics of hazardous waste   Hazardous Waste
    0   Fractures   Groundwater
    0   Groundwater table   Groundwater
    0   Ice thickness   Natural Hazards
    0   Landslides   Natural Hazards
    0   Porosity / Permeability   Groundwater
    0   Quality / Thickness of aquifer/aquitard   Groundwater
    0   Quality and thickness (Natural resources)   Natural Resources
    Seismic vibration control +   Building stability   Buildings and Structures
    +   Endangerment of structures   Civil Engineering
    Shallow Water Seismics - Lake Seismics +   Depth of Overburden-bedrock interface   Civil Engineering
    +   Earthquakes / paleoseismology   Natural Hazards
    +   Fractures   Groundwater
    +   Gravel, clay, limestone, salt exploration   Natural Resources
    0   Foundations of ancient structures   Buildings and Structures
    0   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    0   Quality and thickness (Natural resources)   Natural Resources
    Shallow reflection seismics +   Cavity detection   Civil Engineering
    +   Depth of Overburden-bedrock interface   Civil Engineering
    +   Fractures   Groundwater
    +   Heat mining   Natural Resources
    +   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    +   Ice thickness   Natural Hazards
    +   Location of Ancient Structures   Cultural Heritage
    +   Regional Mapping   Regional Mapping
    +   Wall Construction   Cultural Heritage
    0   Earthquakes / paleoseismology   Natural Hazards
    0   Gravel, clay, limestone, salt exploration   Natural Resources
    0   Groundwater table   Groundwater
    0   Landslides   Natural Hazards
    0   Location of buried materials   Hazardous Waste
    0   Permafrost and ice detection   Natural Hazards
    0   Porosity / Permeability   Groundwater
    0   Quality / Thickness of aquifer/aquitard   Groundwater
    0   Quality and thickness (Natural resources)   Natural Resources
    0   Soil / rock quality   Civil Engineering
    0   Young's / shear modulus, Poisson's ratio   Civil Engineering
    Shear-wave reflection seismics +   Depth of Overburden-bedrock interface   Civil Engineering
    +   Fractures   Groundwater
    +   Gravel, clay, limestone, salt exploration   Natural Resources
    +   Heat mining   Natural Resources
    +   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    +   Landslides   Natural Hazards
    +   Quality / Thickness of aquifer/aquitard   Groundwater
    +   Soil / rock quality   Civil Engineering
    +   Young's / shear modulus, Poisson's ratio   Civil Engineering
    0   Quality and thickness (Natural resources)   Natural Resources
    Standard refraction seismics +   Depth of Overburden-bedrock interface   Civil Engineering
    +   Gravel, clay, limestone, salt exploration   Natural Resources
    +   Groundwater table   Groundwater
    +   Host sediments, hydogeological settings   Hazardous Waste
    +   Ice thickness   Natural Hazards
    +   Landslides   Natural Hazards
    +   Location of buried materials   Hazardous Waste
    +   Permafrost and ice detection   Natural Hazards
    +   Quality and thickness (Natural resources)   Natural Resources
    +   Quantity/ Thickness   Hazardous Waste
    +   Young's / shear modulus, Poisson's ratio   Civil Engineering
    0   Building stability   Buildings and Structures
    0   Characteristics of hazardous waste   Hazardous Waste
    0   Earthquakes / paleoseismology   Natural Hazards
    0   Foundations of ancient structures   Buildings and Structures
    0